Conflict zones can be the most unpredictable and demanding environments in which to practice medicine as material deprivation, physical danger and health worker shortages have to be navigated in real time. They also disproportionately affect children, older adults and refugees. Meanwhile, the notion of war as a temporal event—with a clear beginning and end—has become outdated. For example, conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq and Central America have become decades-long affairs, each with no end in sight.
In war, medical ethics becomes immediate and vital
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